Researchers discovered G4 during a pig surveillance program that ran from 2011 to 2018, in which they collected more than 30,000 nasal swab samples from pigs in slaughterhouses and veterinary teaching hospitals across 10 Chinese provinces.
From these samples, researchers identified 179 swine influenza viruses — but not all of them posed a concern. Some only showed up one year out of the program’s seven, or eventually declined to nonthreatening levels.
But the G4 virus kept showing up in pigs, year after year — and even showed sharp increases in the swine population after 2016.
Further tests showed that G4 can infect humans by binding to our cells and receptors, and it can replicate quickly inside our airway cells. And though G4 holds H1N1 genes, people who have received seasonal flu vaccines won’t have any immunity.
G4 already appears to have infected humans in China. In Hebei and Shandong provinces, both places with high pig numbers, more than 10% of swine workers on pig farms and 4.4% of the general population tested positive in a survey from 2016 to 2018.
There is no evidence yet that G4 could spread from person to person, but researchers warned that the virus was on the rise among pig populations, and could “pose a serious threat to human health.” Transmission of the virus from pig to human could “lead to severe infection and even death,” said the study, which called for stronger surveillance and control of the virus’ spread.
Surveillance and discovery
After 2009, the H1N1 virus in humans spread back into pigs around the world, and the genes mixed into new combinations — creating new viruses like G4.
“It is of concern that human infection of G4 virus will further human adaptation and increase the risk of a human pandemic,” said the authors of the study, based at several Chinese institutions including Shandong Agricultural University and the Chinese National Influenza Center.
To decrease the risk of this happening, Chinese farmers and authorities need to control the spread of the virus among pigs, and closely monitor people who work with the animals, said the team.
The central Chinese city of Wuhan is ground zero for the novel coronavirus, which emerged in December last year and began spreading internationally in January. The outbreak prompted China to impose strict lockdowns nationwide, closing local and provincial borders and ordering residents to stay at home.
The country began reopening in March after largely containing the virus — but new outbreaks and local transmissions in recent weeks have seen some cities go back under lockdown.
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